In the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) programme the Netherlands participates in developing and producing a new fighter plane: the F-35. In July 2012 the Dutch House of Representatives summoned the Cabinet to terminate the Dutch involvement in the programme. The Cabinet decided to first research the effects of participation in the JSF programma and commissioned SEO to investigate the industrial consequences and employment effects of participation and the impact on the knowledge economy of the Netherlands.

F-35 makes the Dutch aircraft industry more innovative causing additional spin-offs. The programme leads to a shift of employees out of other jobs, increasing their productivity. The net employment effect is positive in the short term but zero in the long term.