This report analyses competition in the seed industry, with a focus on firms active in the Netherlands. Using desk-research, in-depth interviews and data analysis this study assesses concentration, pricing, market power, barriers to entry and substitution possibilities for customers. Firstly, the report provides a general and global overview of the seed industry. This highly R;D-intensive industry improves seeds and crops to enhance productivity and serve consumer preferences. The top-5 vegetable seed companies served in 2008 more than 65 percent of worldwide demand. Secondly, with case studies the study looks at potato, tomato and paprika. The general finding is that the seed industries for these crops are concentrated. Competition is however intensive and suppliers rival to discover and market the seed with the best properties. Innovation does not seem to slow down in this winner takes all race.