Actual and perceived bureaucracy accompanied by special educational needs provision before the introduction of Appropriate Education in the Netherlands: a study among educational partnerships, schools and parents

Reducing the bureaucracy which accompanies special educational needs provision is one of the goals of the introduction of Appropriate Education in the Netherlands. To ascertain whether that goal is being met, information is needed on the level of bureaucracy in the old system without Appropriate Education. How did schools and parents perceive bureaucracy, and what level did bureaucracy have in the educational partnerships? This was ascertained in a baseline study, which distinguished between the actual bureaucracy in educational partnerships and regional expertise centres and perceived bureaucracy by schools and parents.