Exceptions to copyright have an important economic function for many industries. This is the first study that determines the economic size of these sectors for the European Union.. The study looks at 35 industries that use copyright exceptions through the production process or as a stimulus to consumer demand. The value added of these industries in the EU amounted € 1.1 trillion in 2007, this equals 9.3% of European GDP. Almost 9 million people, or 4% of all workers have jobs in these industries. The study aims to contribute to the policy discussion on copyright.